HICEM: A High-Coverage Emotion Model for Artificial Emotional Intelligence

Benjamin Wortman and James Z. Wang
The Pennsylvania State University, USA


As social robots and other intelligent machines enter the home, artificial emotional intelligence (AEI) is taking center stage to address users’ desire for deeper, more meaningful human-machine interaction. To accomplish such efficacious interaction, the next-generation AEI need comprehensive human emotion models for training. Unlike theory of emotion, which has been the historical focus in psychology, emotion models are a descriptive tools. In practice, the strongest models need robust coverage, which means defining the smallest core set of emotions from which all others can be derived. To achieve the desired coverage, we turn to word embeddings from natural language processing. Using unsupervised clustering techniques, our experiments show that with as few as 15 discrete emotion categories, we can provide maximum coverage across six major languages–Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. In support of our findings, we also examine annotations from two large-scale emotion recognition datasets to assess the validity of existing emotion models compared to human perception at scale. Because robust, comprehensive emotion models are foundational for developing real-world affective computing applications, this work has broad implications in social robotics, human-machine interaction, mental healthcare, and computational psychology.

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Citation: Benjamin Wortman and James Z. Wang, ``HICEM: A High-Coverage Emotion Model for Artificial Emotional Intelligence,'' IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, vol. , no. , pp. -, 2024.

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Last Modified: October 12, 2023
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