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0"~v___PPT9X/0< &+/0(?O=CRelational Algebra,Operators
Expression Trees
Bag Model of Data(What is an Algebra Mathematical system consisting of:
Operands  variables or values from which new values can be constructed.
Operators  symbols denoting procedures that construct new values from given values.L##fC fN What is Relational Algebra?An algebra whose operands are relations or variables that represent relations.
Operators are designed to do the most common things that we need to do with relations in a database.
The result is an algebra that can be used as a query language for relations.>N/f
Roadmap
There is a core relational algebra that has traditionally been thought of as the relational algebra.
But there are several other operators we shall add to the core in order to model better the language SQL  the principal language used in relational database systems.$MCore Relational AlgebraUnion, intersection, and difference.
Usual set operations, but require both operands have the same relation schema.
Selection: picking certain rows.
Projection: picking certain columns.
Products and joins: compositions of relations.
Renaming of relations and attributes.%ZOZZ#33O 33
33333333 SelectionR1 := SELECTC (R2)
C is a condition (as in if statements) that refers to attributes of R2.
R1 is all those tuples of R2 that satisfy C.Xxtn
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ProjectionR1 := PROJL (R2)
L is a list of attributes from the schema of R2.
R1 is constructed by looking at each tuple of R2, extracting the attributes on list L, in the order specified, and creating from those components a tuple for R1.
Eliminate duplicate tuples, if any.X
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Example ProductR3 := R1 * R2
Pair each tuple t1 of R1 with each tuple t2 of R2.
Concatenation t1t2 is a tuple of R3.
Schema of R3 is the attributes of R1 and then R2, in order.
But beware attribute A of the same name in R1 and R2: use R1.A and R2.A.b' >"
Example: R3 := R1 * R2
ThetaJoinR3 := R1 JOINC R2
Take the product R1 * R2.
Then apply SELECTC to the result.
As for SELECT, C can be any booleanvalued condition.
Historic versions of this operator allowed only A q B, where q is =, <, etc.; hence the name thetajoin. =7k
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Natural JoinA frequent type of join connects two relations by:
Equating attributes of the same name, and
Projecting out one copy of each pair of equated attributes.
Called natural join.
Denoted R3 := R1 JOIN R2.X3f03fff!ExampleRenamingThe RENAME operator gives a new schema to a relation.
R1 := RENAMER1(A1,& ,An)(R2) makes R1 be a relation with attributes A1,& ,An and the same tuples as R2.
Simplified notation: R1(A1,& ,An) := R2.B 22 /ExampleBuilding Complex ExpressionsCombine operators with parentheses and precedence rules.
Three notations, just as in arithmetic:
Sequences of assignment statements.
Expressions with several operators.
Expression trees..aZwaZSequences of AssignmentsCreate temporary relation names.
Renaming can be implied by giving relations a list of attributes.
Example: R3 := R1 JOINC R2 can be written:
R4 := R1 * R2
R3 := SELECTC (R4)R!y"Expressions in a Single AssignmentExample: the thetajoin R3 := R1 JOINC R2 can be written: R3 := SELECTC (R1 * R2)
Precedence of relational operators:
[SELECT, PROJECT, RENAME] (highest).
[PRODUCT, JOIN].
INTERSECTION.
[UNION, ]VvPw% /PExpression TreesLeaves are operands  either variables standing for relations or particular, constant relations.
Interior nodes are operators, applied to their child or children.ExampleUsing the relations Bars(name, addr) and Sells(bar, beer, price), find the names of all the bars that are either on Maple St. or sell Bud for less than $3.:\y
As a Tree:ExampleUsing Sells(bar, beer, price), find the bars that sell two different beers at the same price.
Strategy: by renaming, define a copy of Sells, called S(bar, beer1, price). The natural join of Sells and S consists of quadruples (bar, beer, beer1, price) such that the bar sells both beers at this price.:.wThe Tree!Schemas for ResultsUnion, intersection, and difference: the schemas of the two operands must be the same, so use that schema for the result.
Selection: schema of the result is the same as the schema of the operand.
Projection: list of attributes tells us the schema.HZ#33W 33A
33*"Schemas for Results  (2)Product: schema is the attributes of both relations.
Use R.A, etc., to distinguish two attributes named A.
Thetajoin: same as product.
Natural join: union of the attributes of the two relations.
Renaming: the operator tells the schema.5633.,
3333133!#Relational Algebra on BagsA bag (or multiset ) is like a set, but an element may appear more than once.
Example: {1,2,1,3} is a bag.
Example: {1,2,3} is also a bag that happens to be a set.>ff$ Why Bags?SQL, the most important query language for relational databases, is actually a bag language.
Some operations, like projection, are much more efficient on bags than sets.%Operations on BagsSelection applies to each tuple, so its effect on bags is like its effect on sets.
Projection also applies to each tuple, but as a bag operator, we do not eliminate duplicates.
Products and joins are done on each pair of tuples, so duplicates in bags have no effect on how we operate.\Z 33J
33T3333Z>Te:&Example: Bag Selection' Example: Bag Projection(!Example: Bag Product)"Example: Bag ThetaJoin*# Bag UnionAn element appears in the union of two bags the sum of the number of times it appears in each bag.
Example: {1,2,1} UNION {1,1,2,3,1} = {1,1,1,1,1,2,2,3}+$Bag IntersectionAn element appears in the intersection of two bags the minimum of the number of times it appears in either.
Example: {1,2,1,1} INTER {1,2,1,3} = {1,1,2}.,%Bag DifferenceAn element appears in the difference A B of bags as many times as it appears in A, minus the number of times it appears in B.
But never less than 0 times.
Example: {1,2,1,1} {1,2,3} = {1,1}.l&')*&;4Beware: Bag Laws != Set Laws,Some, but not all algebraic laws that hold for sets also hold for bags.
Example: the commutative law for union (R UNION S = S UNION R ) does hold for bags.
Since addition is commutative, adding the number of times x appears in R and S doesn t depend on the order of R and S.w
`: <5Example of the DifferenceSet union is idempotent, meaning that S UNION S = S.
However, for bags, if x appears n times in S, then it appears 2n times in S UNION S.
Thus S UNION S != S in general.
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&The Extended AlgebraDELTA = eliminate duplicates from bags.
TAU = sort tuples.
Extended projection : arithmetic, duplication of columns.
GAMMA = grouping and aggregation.
Outerjoin : avoids dangling tuples = tuples that do not join with anything.u33#333333
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f+P3^ .'Duplicate Elimination\R1 := DELTA(R2).
R1 consists of one copy of each tuple that appears in R2 one or more times.1&/(Example: Duplicate Elimination0)SortingR1 := TAUL (R2).
L is a list of some of the attributes of R2.
R1 is the list of tuples of R2 sorted first on the value of the first attribute on L, then on the second attribute of L, and so on.
Break ties arbitrarily.
TAU is the only operator whose result is neither a set nor a bag.Z.ZZZBZ S"
BQ1*Example: Sorting2+Extended ProjectionUsing the same PROJL operator, we allow the list L to contain arbitrary expressions involving attributes, for example:
Arithmetic on attributes, e.g., A+B.
Duplicate occurrences of the same attribute.xRwF /3,Example: Extended Projection4Aggregation OperatorsAggregation operators are not operators of relational algebra.
Rather, they apply to entire columns of a table and produce a single result.
The most important examples: SUM, AVG, COUNT, MIN, and MAX.5.Example: Aggregation6/Grouping OperatorR1 := GAMMAL (R2). L is a list of elements that are either:
Individual (grouping ) attributes.
AGG(A ), where AGG is one of the aggregation operators and A is an attribute.>rw)f670Applying GAMMAL(R)&bGroup R according to all the grouping attributes on list L.
That is: form one group for each distinct list of values for those attributes in R.
Within each group, compute AGG(A ) for each aggregation on list L.
Result has one tuple for each group:
The grouping attributes and
Their group s aggregations. <Th:w2Q ':K81Example: Grouping/Aggregation92 Outerjoin Suppose we join R JOINC S.
A tuple of R that has no tuple of S with which it joins is said to be dangling.
Similarly for a tuple of S.
Outerjoin preserves dangling tuples by padding them with a special NULL symbol in the result.m^
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(Onscreen ShowStanford University, CS Dept.Ex6\5 :Times New RomanTahomaMonotype SortsSymbolDefault DesignRelational AlgebraWhat is an AlgebraWhat is Relational Algebra?RoadmapCore Relational Algebra
SelectionExampleProjectionExampleProductExample: R3 := R1 * R2ThetaJoinExample
Natural JoinExample RenamingExampleBuilding Complex ExpressionsSequences of Assignments#Expressions in a Single AssignmentExpression TreesExampleAs a Tree:Example The TreeSchemas for ResultsSchemas for Results  (2)Relational Algebra on Bags
Why Bags?Operations on BagsExample: Bag SelectionExample: Bag ProjectionExample: Bag ProductExample: Bag ThetaJoin
Bag UnionBag IntersectionBag DifferenceBeware: Bag Laws != Set LawsExample of the DifferenceThe Extended AlgebraDuplicate EliminationExample: Duplicate EliminationSortingExample: SortingExtended ProjectionExample: Extended ProjectionAggregation OperatorsExample: AggregationGrouping OperatorApplying GAMMAL(R)Example: Grouping/Aggregation
OuterjoinExample: OuterjoinFonts UsedDesign Template
Slide Titles5)_5jeffrey d. ullmanjeffrey d. ullman
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