Database Systems: The Complete Book
Solutions for Chapter 18

Solutions for Section 18.1
Solutions for Section 18.2
Solutions for Section 18.3
Solutions for Section 18.4
Solutions for Section 18.5
Solutions for Section 18.6
Solutions for Section 18.7
Solutions for Section 18.8
Solutions for Section 18.9

Solutions for Section 18.1

Exercise 18.1.1

r1(A); r1(B); w1(B); r1(C); w1(C); r1(D); w1(D); r1(E); w1(E).

Exercise 18.1.2

Think of the interleaving as having 10 positions. The 4 actions of the first transaction occupy any 4 of the 10, so the number of interleavings is (10 choose 4), or 10*9*8*7/1*2*3*4 = 210.

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Solutions for Section 18.2

Exercise 18.2.1(d)

The key observation is that in order for an interleaving to be serializable, whichever transaction reads A first, must write it before the second reads A, and likewise for B. There are four possibilities:

  1. T1 reads both A and B first: Then all the steps of T1 must precede all the steps of T2, if the interleaving is serializable. There is 1 order of this type.

  2. T2 reads both A and B first: Similarly, there is 1 order of this type.

  3. T1 reads B first but T2 reads A first. This situation is impossible.

  4. T1 reads A first but T2 reads B first. Now, the first three steps of each transaction may interleave in any way, and the last three of each may interleave in any way, but the two groups of six actions must not interleave. The crucial observation is that the fourth step of each transaction (their second reads) must follow the third step of each transaction (their first writes), either to avoid reading A or B before it is written, or because actions of the same transaction cannot be reordered. The number of serializable orders of this type is (6 choose 3)*(6 choose 3) = 20*20 = 400.

The total number of serial orders is thus 402.

Exercise 18.2.2(a)

If a swap of two adjacent actions is legal, then the two actions can alos be swapped back again, legally. Thus, instead of looking for schedules that are conflict equivalent to the given serial order, we can instead consider into what other schedules the serial order can be permuted by legal swaps. However, since in the serial order, the 4th and 5th steps are w1(B); r2(B), these cannot be swapped. All other adjacent pairs are of the same transaction, and therefore they surely cannot be swapped. Thus, the only schedule conflict equivalent to the serial order (T1, T2) is that order itself; the answer is 1.

Exercise 18.2.4(a)

Revised 12/5/05

i. The precedence graph is

     T3 -----> T2 -----> T1

ii. The schedule is thus conflict-serializable. The only conflict-equivalent serial schedule is (T3, T2, T1).

iii. No. Assume, for example, that initially each of A, B, and C are 10. T1 sets A and C to 20, T2 sets B to A+B+C, and T3 prints B. Then if T3 does not precede T2, it prints the wrong value, and if T2 does not precede T1, it sets B to the wrong value.

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Solutions for Section 18.3

Exercise 18.3.1(a)

One example of a prohibited schedule is r1(A); r2(B); w2(B); r2(A); w1(A); r1(B); w1(B); w2(A). The problem is that at the fourth step, both transactions must hold a lock on A.

Exercise 18.3.2

Suppose the schedule starts with T1 locking and reading A. If T2 locks B before T1 reaches its unlocking phase, then there is a deadlock, and the schedule cannot complete. Thus, if T1 performs an action first, it must perform all its actions before T2 performs any. Likewise, if T2 starts first, it must complete before T1 starts, or there is a deadlock. Thus, only the two serial schedules of these transactions are legal.

Exercise 18.3.3(a)

Note that this question refers to the solved Exercise 18.2.4(a). For the sequence of the latter exercise, the second request, r2(A), cannot be granted because of the lock held by T1. T2 is thus delayed until after the 4th step of the sequence, w1(A), after which T1 releases its lock on A. No other delays are necessary, so the sequence of scheduled actions would be: r1(A); r3(B); w1(A); r2(A); r2(C); r2(B); w2(B); w1(C).

Exercise 18.3.4(a)

First, let us count the number of consistent orders. To be consistent, the lock and unlock must surround the read or write. Thus, the only consistent sequences are the interleavings of the two sequences

  1. l1(A); r1(A); u1(A)

  2. l1(B); w1(B); u1(B)

The number of these interleavings is (6 choose 3) = 20. Note that 20 is thus the sum of the first two quantities we need to compute; (i) + (ii).

Now, let us count (ii), the number of consistent, non-two-phase-locked sequences. The only way a consistent sequence is not 2PL is if the unlock at the end of subsequence (1) or (2) above precedes the lock at the beginning of the other subsequence. There are only 2 ways to interleave (1) and (2) so that all of one goes in front of all of the other (put either subsequence first). Thus, (ii) = 2, so (i) = 20 - 2 = 18.

Next, let us count the number of two-phase-locked sequences, which is (i) + (iii). If the sequence is 2PL, then the two locks precede the two unlocks. We can thus pick one of two orders for the locks and one of two orders for the unlocks, for a total of 4 orders of the lock and unlock actions. The r1(A) action can go anywhere. That is, we can choose any of 5 positions in which to insert the read action among the lock and unlock actions, ranging from before all to after all. Having placed the read action, the w1(B) action can now be placed in any of 6 positions among the other five. The total number of 2PL sequences is thus 4*5*6 = 120.

Since (i) + (iii) = 120, and we already know (i) = 18, we deduce that (iii) = 102.

The last step is to compute the total number of sequences, which is the sum of all four categories. The number of sequences of six actions is 6! = 720. As the number of sequences in the first three categories is 18, 2, and 102, respectively, (iv) = 720 - 18 -2 - 102 = 598.

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Solutions for Section 18.4

Exercise 18.4.1(d)

(i): xl1(A); r1(A); xl2(B); r2(B); xl3(C); r3(C); sl1(B); r1(B); sl2(C); r2(C); sl3(D); r3(D); w1(A); u1(A); u1(B); w2(B); u2(B); u2(C); w3(C); u3(C); u3(D)

(ii): The first three locks and reads are allowed. However, T1 cannot get a shared lock on B, nor can T2 get a shared lock on C. When T3 requests a shared lock on D it is granted. Thus, T3 can proceed and eventually unlocks C and D.

As soon as C is unlocked, T2 can get its shared lock on C. Thus, T2 completes and releases its locks. As soon as its lock on B is released, T1 can get its lock on A, so it completes.

(iii): sl1(A); r1(A); sl2(B); r2(B); sl3(C); r3(C); sl1(B); r1(B); sl2(C); r2(C); sl3(D); r3(D); xl1(A); w1(A); u1(A); u1(B); xl2(B); w2(B); u2(B); u2(C); xl3(C); w3(C); u3(C); u3(D)

(iv): First, all six shared-lock requests are granted. When T1 requests an exclusive lock on A, it gets it, because it is the only transaction holding a lock on A. T1 completes and releases its locks. Thus, when T2 asks for an exclusive lock on B, it is the only transaction still holding a shared lock on B, so that lock too may be granted, and T2 completes. After T2 releases its locks, T3 is able to upgrade its shared lock on C to exclusive, and it too proceeds. The actions are thus executed in exactly the same order as they are requested; i.e., there are no delays by the scheduler.

(v): ul1(A); r1(A); ul2(B); r2(B); ul3(C); r3(C); sl1(B); r1(B); sl2(C); r2(C); sl3(D); r3(D); xl1(A); w1(A); u1(A); u1(B); xl2(B); w2(B); u2(B); u2(C); xl3(C); w3(C); u3(C); u3(D)

(vi): The update locks prevent the fourth and fifth shared-lock requests, sl1(B) and sl2(C), so T1 and T2 are delayed, while T3 is allowed to proceed. The situation is exactly as for part (ii), where the initial lock requests are for exclusive locks.

Exercise 18.4.2(a)

First, let us count the number of serializable orders that are conflict-equivalent to the order (T1, T2). By symmetry, there will be the same number equivalent to the opposite order, (T2, T1). In order for a schedule to be equivalent to (T1, T2), inc1(A) must precede r2(A). Thus, the first three steps of T1 must be first in the schedule.

Also, inc1(B) must come before r2(B), so the former can either be the fourth action of the schedule, or it can be fifth, coming after r2(A). Thus, there are two serializable schedules equivalent to (T1, T2), and four serializable schedules altogether.

Exercise 18.4.6(a)

The only actions that commute are (i)-(ii) and (iii)-(iv). That is, it doesn't matter whether we first set the x-axis and then the y-axis, or vice-versa. Likewise, it doesn't matter whether we first set the angle and then the magnitude or vice-versa. However, all other pairs of actions matter.

For example, consider the actions (set angle = 90)(set x = 5) applied to the vector (10,0). The first step gives us (0,10), and the second step gives us (5,10).

On the other hand, the reverse order of the actions: (set x = 5)(set angle = 90) starting with (10,0) gives us (0,5), and the second step gives us (5,5).

Exercise 18.4.7(a)

The only constraint on a serial order so far is that T1 must precede T2, because T1 reads A before T2 writes A. The only way we could get a cycle in the precedence graph is if ??? required T2 to precede T1. A read of anything by T1 will not introduce any constraints, but r2(C) will cause an arc from T2 to T1 and lead to a cycle.

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Solutions for Section 18.5

Exercise 18.5.1(b)

If we examine the compatibility matrix from Fig. 9.22 of the text, we see that the only possible sets of locks on a single element are either

  1. One exclusive lock.

  2. One or more shared locks.

  3. One or more increment locks.

Thus, the only needed lock modes are exclusive, shared, and increment, which correctly sum up the limitations on access to a given element in the above three situations, respectively.

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Solutions for Section 18.6

Exercise 18.6.1(a)

At the first step, T1 puts a IS lock on the extent and on block 1, and an S lock on object O1.

At step 2, T2 puts an IX lock on the extent and on block 1, both of which are compatible with the IS locks already there. T2 also puts an X lock on O2.

At step 3, T2 puts an IS lock on the extent and on block 2 and an S lock on O3, then releases its locks.

At step 4, T1 puts an IX lock on the extent and on block 2 and an X lock on O4, then releases its locks.

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Solutions for Section 18.7

Exercise 18.7.1(a)

As soon as we reach the left child of the root, we see that node is not full. Thus, the insert of 10 cannot cause that node to split, and there will be no reason to rewrite the root. We can now release the exclusive lock on the root.

We are then directed to the second leaf. Since that leaf is not full either, we know the insertion will not cause the left child of the root to be changed, so we can release the exclusive lock on that child. As soon as we have rewritten the second leaf to reflect the insertion of 10, we can release the lock on the leaf.

Exercise 18.7.2(a)

Note: we shall assume only a single type of lock, so that even though the operations are all reads (and therefore, any interleaving could in principle be considered serializable), it is not possible for two transactions to access the same element until one has relinquished its lock.

Suppose that T1 locks A first. Then T2 cannot perform any steps until T1 relinquishes the lock. Therefore, T1 must also read B, at the second step of the schedule. Now, T1 can relinquish the lock on A. The remaining step of T1, r1(E), can occur either before all of T2, or after the first or second step of T2. It cannot occur after the last step of T2, r2(B), because T1 can't relinquish its lock on B, until it has locked E. Thus, there are three interleavings in which T1 starts first.

Now, consider what happens if T2 starts first. T2 cannot relinquish its lock on A until it has locked both children B and C. Thus, if T2 starts first, it must finish before T1 starts. We conclude that there are four legal schedules.

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Solutions for Section 18.8

Exercise 18.8.1(a)

Since T1 starts first, it has the lower timestamp. The two read steps execute without problem, and leave A and B with the read-timestamps of T1 and T2, respectively.

When T2 tries to write A, it finds the read-timestamp to be less than the timestamp of T2, so the write may be performed, and T2 can commit. However, when T1 tries to write B, it finds the read-timestamp is greater than its own timestamp, so some transaction read another value of B, when it should have read T1's value. Thus, T1 must abort.

Exercise 18.8.2(a)

The three writes create three versions of A. When T2 tries to rad A, it is given the value that it itself wrote, since that is the version with the greatest timestamp that does not exceed the timestamp of T2. That makes sense, although in practice, we doubt that a well written transaction would read its own value through the database storage system.

When T4 tries to read A the system finds that T4's timestamp is larger than that of any version of A written. Thus, T4 gets the version with the largest of the timestamps, the one written by T3. That makes sense, because in the hypothetical serial order based on the timestamps of the transactions, T3 would be the last to write A.

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Solutions for Section 18.9

Exercise 18.9.1(a)

As T1 is the first to validate, there is nothing to check; T1 validates successfully.

T3 validates next. The only other validated transaction is T1, and T1 has not yet finished. Thus, both the read- and write-sets of T3 must be compared with the write-set of T1. However, T1 writes only A, and T3 neither reads nor writes A, so T3's validation succeeds.

Last, T2 validates. Both T1 and T3 finish after T2 started, so we must compare the read-set of T2 with the write-sets of both T1 and T3. Since B is in both W3 and R2, we cannot validate T2. Note that since T3 (but not T1) finishes after T2 validates, we would also compare the write set of T2 with the write set of T3, had we not already found a reason not to validate T2.

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