 Introduction to Automata
Theory, Languages, and Computation

Solutions for Chapter 4
Solutions for Section 4.1
Solutions for Section 4.2
Solutions for Section 4.3
Solutions for Section 4.4
Solutions for Section 4.1
Exercise 4.1.1(c)
Let n be the pumpinglemma constant (note this n is unrelated to the
n that is a local variable in the definition of the language L).
Pick w = 0^{n}10^{n}.
Then when we write w = xyz, we know that xy <= n, and
therefore y consists of only 0's.
Thus, xz, which must be in L if L is regular, consists of
fewer than n 0's, followed by a 1 and exactly n 0's.
That string is not in L, so we contradict the assumption that L is
regular.
Exercise 4.1.2(a)
Let n be the pumpinglemma constant and pick w = 0^{n2}, that is,
n^{2} 0's.
When we write w = xyz, we know that y consists of between
1 and n 0's.
Thus, xyyz has length between n^{2} + 1 and n^{2} + n.
Since the next perfect square after n^{2} is (n+1)^{2} = n^{2} + 2n
+ 1, we know that the length of xyyz lies strictly between
the consecutive perfect squares n^{2} and (n+1)^{2}.
Thus, the length of xyyz cannot be a perfect square.
But if the language were regular, then xyyz would be in the
language, which contradicts the assumption that the language of strings
of 0's whose length is a perfect square is a regular language.
Exercise 4.1.4(a)
We cannot pick w from the empty language.
Exercise 4.1.4(b)
If the adversary picks n = 3, then we cannot pick a w of
length at least n.
Exercise 4.1.4(c)
The adversary can pick an n > 0, so we have to pick a nonempty
w.
Since w must consist of pairs 00 and 11, the adversary can pick
y to be one of those pairs.
Then whatever i we pick, xy^{i}z will consist of pairs 00
and 11, and so belongs in the language.
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Solutions for Section 4.2
Exercise 4.2.1(a)
aabbaa.
Exercise 4.2.1(c)
The language of regular expression a(ab)*ba.
Exercise 4.2.1(e)
Each b must come from either 1 or 2.
However, if the first b comes from 2 and the second comes from 1,
then they will both need the a between them as part of
h(2) and h(1), respectively.
Thus, the inverse homomorphism consists of the strings {110, 102,
022}.
Exercise 4.2.2
Start with a DFA A for L.
Construct a new DFA B, that is exactly the same as A,
except that state q is an accepting state of B if and only
if δ(q,a) is an accepting state of A.
Then B accepts input string w if and only if A
accepts wa; that is, L(B) = L/a.
Exercise 4.2.5(b)
We shall use D_{a} for ``the derivative with respect to a.''
The key observation is that if epsilon is not in L(R),
then the derivative of RS will always remove an a from the
portion of a string that comes from R.
However, if epsilon is in L(R), then the string might have
nothing from R and will remove a from the beginning of a
string in L(S) (which is also a string in L(RS).
Thus, the rule we want is:
If epsilon is not in L(R), then D_{a}(RS) =
(D_{a}(R))S.
Otherwise, D_{a}(RS) = D_{a}(R)S + D_{a}(S).
Exercise 4.2.5(e)
L may have no string that begins with 0.
Exercise 4.2.5(f)
This condition says that whenever 0w is in L, then
w is in L, and viceversa.
Thus, L must be of the form L(0*)M for some language
M (not necessarily a regular language) that has no string
beginning with 0.
In proof, notice first that D_{0}(L(0*)M = D_{0}(L(0*))M union D_{0}(M)
= L(0*)M.
There are two reasons for the last step.
First, observe that D_{0} applied to the language of all strings of
0's gives all strings of 0's, that is, L(0*).
Second, observe that because M has no string that begins with 0,
D_{0}(M) is the empty set [that's part (e)].
We also need to show that every language N
that is unchanged by D_{0}
is of this form.
Let M be the set of strings in N that do not begin with 0.
If N is unchanged by D_{0}, it follows that for every string
w in M, 00...0w is in N; thus, N
includes all the strings of L(0*)M.
However, N cannot include a string that is not in L(0*)M.
If x were such a string, then we can remove all the 0's at the
beginning of x and get some string y that is also in
N.
But y must also be in M.
Exercise 4.2.8
Let A be a DFA for L.
We construct DFA B for half(L).
The state of B is of the form [q,S], where:

q is the state A would be in after reading whatever input
B has read so far.

S is the set of states of A such that A can get
from exactly these states to an accepting state by reading any input
string whose length is the same as the length of the string B has
read so far.
It is important to realize that it is not necessary for B to know
how many inputs it has read so far; it keeps this information uptodate
each time it reads a new symbol.
The rule that keeps things up to date is:
δ_{B}([q,S],a) = [δ_{A}(q,a),T], where T is the set of
states p of A such that there is a transition from
p to any state of S on any input symbol.
In this manner, the first component continues to simulate A,
while the second component now represents states that can reach an
accepting state following a path that is one longer than the paths
represented by S.
To complete the construction of B, we have only to specify:

The initial state is [q_{0},F], that is, the initial state of
A and the accepting states of A.
This choice reflects the situation when A has read 0 inputs:
it is still in its initial state, and the accepting states are exactly
the ones that can reach an accepting state on a path of length 0.

The accepting states of B are those states [q,S] such that
q is in S.
The justification is that it is exactly these states that are reached by
some string of length n, and there is some other string of length
n that will take state q to an accepting state.
Exercise 4.2.13(a)
Start out by complementing this language.
The result is the language consisting of all strings of 0's and 1's that
are not in 0*1*, plus the strings in L_{0n1n}.
If we intersect with 0*1*, the result is exactly L_{0n1n}.
Since complementation and intersection with a regular set preserve
regularity, if the given language were regular then so would be
L_{0n1n}.
Since we know the latter is false, we conclude the given language is not
regular.
Exercise 4.2.14(c)
Change the accepting states to be those for which the first component is
an accepting state of A_{L} and the second is a nonaccepting state
of A_{M}.
Then the resulting DFA accepts if and only if the input is in L 
M.
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Solutions for Section 4.3
Exercise 4.3.1
Let n be the pumpinglemma constant.
Test all strings of length between n and 2n1 for membership in
L.
If we find even one such string, then L is infinite.
The reason is that the pumping lemma applies to such a string, and it
can be ``pumped'' to show an infinite sequence of strings are in L.
Suppose, however, that there are no strings in L whose length is in
the range n to 2n1.
We claim there are no strings in L of length 2n or more, and thus
there are only a finite number of strings in L.
In proof, suppose w is a string in L of length at least 2n,
and w is as short as any string in L that has length at least
2n.
Then the pumping lemma applies to w, and we can write w =
xyz, where xz is also in L.
How long could xz be?
It can't be as long as 2n, because it is shorter than w, and
w is as short as any string in L of length 2n or more.
n, because xz is at most n shorter
than w.
Thus, xz is of length between n and 2n1, which is a
contradiction, since we assumed there were no strings in L with a
length in that range.
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Solutions for Section 4.4
Exercise 4.4.1
Revised 10/23/01.
Bx
Cx x
Dx x x
Ex x x
Fx x x x
G x x x x x
Hx x x x x x x

A B C D E F G
 0  1 
>AG  BF  AG 
BF  AG  CE 
CE  D  BF 
*D  D  AG 
H  AG  D 
Note, however, that state H is inaccessible, so it should be
removed, leaving the first four states as the minimumstate DFA.
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