 Introduction to Automata
Theory, Languages, and Computation

Solutions for Chapter 5
Solutions for Section 5.1
Solutions for Section 5.2
Solutions for Section 5.3
Solutions for Section 5.4
Revised 11/11/01.
Solutions for Section 5.1
Exercise 5.1.1(a)
S > 0S1  01
Exercise 5.1.1(b)
S > AB  CD
A > aA  ε
B > bBc  E  cD
C > aCb  E  aA
D > cD  ε
E > bE  b
To understand how this grammar works, observe the following:
 A generates zero or more a's.
 D generates zero or more c's.
 E generates one or more b's.
 B first generates an equal number of b's and
c's, then produces either one or more b's (via E)
or one or more c's (via cD).
That is, B generates strings in b*c* with an unequal
number of b's and c's.
 Similarly, C generates unequal numbers of a's then
b's.
 Thus, AB generates strings in a*b*c* with an unequal
numbers of b's and c's, while CD generates strings
in a*b*c* with an unequal number of a's and b's.
Exercise 5.1.2(a)
Leftmost: S => A1B => 0A1B => 00A1B => 001B => 0010B => 00101B => 00101
Rightmost: S => A1B => A10B => A101B => A101 => 0A101 => 00A101 => 00101
Exercise 5.1.5
S > S+S  SS  S*  (S)  0  1  phi  e
The idea is that these productions for S allow any expression to
be, respectively, the sum (union) of two expressions, the concatenation
of two expressions, the star of an expression, a parenthesized
expression, or one of the four basis cases of expressions: 0, 1, phi,
and ε.
Return to Top
Solutions for Section 5.2
Exercise 5.2.1(a)
S
/  \
A 1 B
/  / 
0 A 0 B
/  / 
0 A 1 B
 
e e
In the above tree, e stands for ε.
Return to Top
Solutions for Section 5.3
Exercise 5.3.2
B > BB  (B)  [B]  ε
Exercise 5.3.4(a)
Change production (5) to:
ListItem > <LI> Doc </LI>
Return to Top
Solutions for Section 5.4
Exercise 5.4.1
Here are the parse trees:
S S
/  / /  \
a S a S b S
/  \ \  \ 
a S b S a S e
  
e e e
The two leftmost derivations are:
S => aS => aaSbS => aabS => aab and S => aSbS => aaSbS => aabS => aab.
The two rightmost derivations are:
S => aS => aaSbS => aaSb => aab and S => aSbS => aSb => aaSb => aab.
Exercise 5.4.3
The idea is to introduce another nonterminal T
that cannot generate an
unbalanced a.
That strategy corresponds to the usual rule in programming languages
that an ``else'' is associated with the closest previous, unmatched ``then.''
Here, we force a b to match the previous unmatched a.
The grammar:
S > aS  aTbS  ε
T > aTbT  ε
Exercise 5.4.6
Alas, it is not.
We need to have three
nonterminals, corresponding to the three possible ``strengths''
of expressions:

A factor cannot be broken by any operator.
These are the basis expressions, parenthesized expressions, and these
expressions followed by one or more *'s.

A term can be broken only by a *.
For example, consider 01, where the 0
and 1 are concatenated, but if we follow it by a *, it becomes 0(1*),
and the concatenation has been ``broken'' by the *.

An expression can be broken by concatenation or *, but not by +.
An example is the expression 0+1.
Note that if we concatenate (say) 1 or follow by a *, we parse the
expression 0+(11) or 0+(1*), and in either case the union has been
broken.
The grammar:
E > E+T  T
T > TF  F
F > F*  (E)  0  1  phi  e
Return to Top